Ud - Lute

Ud (Lute)

Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.

There are almost no structural differences between the ud used in Turkey and those played elsewhere. Hoever, it must be made clear that the Arab ud tends to be slightly larger, and can have two small holes instead of one large one on the chest. These holes are invariably decorated with a single rose, whether the ud be Turkish, Arab, Iranian, Armenian or Greek. Apart from two minor changes, the ud has remained unchanged for the last 1,000 years. The body of the ud, which sits in the player’s lap, is made up of up to 20 layers of wood in the shape of a crescent. The short, flat stem is attached to the body by means of a wedge. It gets narrow as it approaches the pegs, and is some four fingers wide where it joins the body. The peg area is at 45 degrees to the stem, and forms an S shape, where the pegs are attached. All but one of the strings are double. The bottom two pairs used to be made of gut, although they are now made of fishing line. The other strings are made of silk covered with silver or copper. Each string goes over a bridge attached to the body (which is also the main bridge in the ud), and joins its own peg. The body of the ud is about 1 mm. thick, and made of straight-grained spruce. The supporting strips under the chest are known as the ‘balkon.’ The way they are set out affects the sonority of the instrument.

In the old days, strings were made of cat gut, or silk covered with silver, known as ‘silver plaited strings.’ Nylon has now replaced gut. The ud used to be played with chicken and eagle feathers, and some performers used a plectrum made of hard leather or cherry bark. Plastic plectra are now preferred, however.

The body of the ud is placed on the player’s lap, and squeezed from the top by the right arm, the plectrum being held in the right hand. The strings are plucked by the fingers of the left hand.

Although it was popular in various periods, it took its definitive place among the instruments of Ottoman music in the second half of the 19th century.

Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.
Ceng (primitive harp) is one of the instruments included under the category of "open harps". These are divided in turn into "bow" and "angled" harps. The ceng belongs to the second category. In open harps the strings are stretched between the peg box and the resonator. There is nothing in front of the longest (and deepest) string. In closed harps, there is a third part that joins the two sides of the resonator and the peg box which form an angle.
Kabak Kemane (three-stringed violin) is a widespread Turkish folk instrument, the features of which change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gıcak, gıccek or gıjek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots.
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'.
Kemence - small violin played like a cello: The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence".
The term "kopuz" has long been used to mean "instrument" in Central Asia, and is today used to represent instruments that may or may not resemble one another, and appears in different Turkish dialects as "komis", "kobuz", "kobız", "kubuz" etc. What is presently referred to as the kobuz has survived in very different form among Turkish communities in Central, Western and Northern Asia.
Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them.
Tambur (mandolin) is one, and perhaps the most important, of the stringed and plucked instruments of Ottoman music. One view is that the tambur was an ancient development of the "kopuz", while others suggest that its own history goes back to very early times. Yet another theory is that the tambur is the first evolution and change of the baðlama family of instruments.
Tar is a Turkish folk instrument played with a plectrum, and is most popular in the Kars region of Turkey. It 's also known to be widely employed in Azerbayjan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Georgia.
Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.