Santur - Dulcimer

Santur (Dulcimer)

Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them. For instance, the kanun is a ‘plectrum cythara.’

It is known that some varieties of harp in Anatolian, Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilisations were sometimes laid down horizontally and played by striking their strings. We may be able to see that as the first known fact about the development of the santur. There is a general view that plectrum cytharae may be earlier than striking ones.

From the point of view of shape the instrument resembles the kanun, and was used for long years in Ottoman music. It has also been used in several Asian and European countries. Yet it was forgetten in Turkey for a time, perhaps as a result of its being unsuited to the country’s musical system. There was a revival of interest after the early 20th century, although that was still quite restricted.

In contrast to the kanun, both sides of this instrument are trapezoid, the short front widening towards the back. Just like the kanun, the santur consists of groups of three strings stretched over an angled wooden table. The number of these string groups has risen over time. That means that the richness of the sound produced has also increased. The strings are divided into two or three by means of bridges placed on the body of the instrument.

In instruments such as the santur, the strings are turned in groups of three, four or five. The santur is played by striking the strings with little hammers whose ends are covered in rubber.

Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.
Ceng (primitive harp) is one of the instruments included under the category of "open harps". These are divided in turn into "bow" and "angled" harps. The ceng belongs to the second category. In open harps the strings are stretched between the peg box and the resonator. There is nothing in front of the longest (and deepest) string. In closed harps, there is a third part that joins the two sides of the resonator and the peg box which form an angle.
Kabak Kemane (three-stringed violin) is a widespread Turkish folk instrument, the features of which change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gıcak, gıccek or gıjek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots.
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'.
Kemence - small violin played like a cello: The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence".
The term "kopuz" has long been used to mean "instrument" in Central Asia, and is today used to represent instruments that may or may not resemble one another, and appears in different Turkish dialects as "komis", "kobuz", "kobız", "kubuz" etc. What is presently referred to as the kobuz has survived in very different form among Turkish communities in Central, Western and Northern Asia.
Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them.
Tambur (mandolin) is one, and perhaps the most important, of the stringed and plucked instruments of Ottoman music. One view is that the tambur was an ancient development of the "kopuz", while others suggest that its own history goes back to very early times. Yet another theory is that the tambur is the first evolution and change of the baðlama family of instruments.
Tar is a Turkish folk instrument played with a plectrum, and is most popular in the Kars region of Turkey. It 's also known to be widely employed in Azerbayjan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Georgia.
Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.