Kemence - small violin played like a cello

Kemence

The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence". The second is rather a folk instrument, and is known as the Black Sea kemence.

The classical kemence is quite small, about 40-41 cm. Ýn length and 14-15 cm. wide. It shape is reminiscent of a pear split down the middle. The head, threaded and in the shape of an oval, and the stem are carved out of one piece of wood. There are two ‘D’-shaped holes on the body outside the rounded edges. On the rear side there is a back trough.

When played, the tail wedge is placed on the left knee, and the pegs leant against the chest in a perpendicular position, or else between the knees. The strings are some 7-10 mm. from the bridge. That is because unlike most stringed instruments, sound is not produced by pressing on the strings with the fingertips, but by sliding a fingernail gently down the side of them.

The neck, stem and body of the Black Sea kemance are carved out of a single piece of wood. Its shape, however, is entirely different. As with other folk instruments, it is impossible to speak of a standard size of Black Sea kemance. However, those used by professional musicians and the like tend to be about 56 cm. long. The body, with its straight sides and flat back is usually made out of plum or juniper wood. The thin chest area is made out of fir or spruce. In order for the strings to be able to cope with the pressure from the bridge, a raised dome travels the length of the body. The pegs are quite small, and attached at the front of the instrument. It is played by touching the strings with the finger tips.

If standing, the player holds the instrument in the air with his left hand. If seated, he rests it between his knees.

Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.
Ceng (primitive harp) is one of the instruments included under the category of "open harps". These are divided in turn into "bow" and "angled" harps. The ceng belongs to the second category. In open harps the strings are stretched between the peg box and the resonator. There is nothing in front of the longest (and deepest) string. In closed harps, there is a third part that joins the two sides of the resonator and the peg box which form an angle.
Kabak Kemane (three-stringed violin) is a widespread Turkish folk instrument, the features of which change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gıcak, gıccek or gıjek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots.
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'.
Kemence - small violin played like a cello: The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence".
The term "kopuz" has long been used to mean "instrument" in Central Asia, and is today used to represent instruments that may or may not resemble one another, and appears in different Turkish dialects as "komis", "kobuz", "kobız", "kubuz" etc. What is presently referred to as the kobuz has survived in very different form among Turkish communities in Central, Western and Northern Asia.
Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them.
Tambur (mandolin) is one, and perhaps the most important, of the stringed and plucked instruments of Ottoman music. One view is that the tambur was an ancient development of the "kopuz", while others suggest that its own history goes back to very early times. Yet another theory is that the tambur is the first evolution and change of the baðlama family of instruments.
Tar is a Turkish folk instrument played with a plectrum, and is most popular in the Kars region of Turkey. It 's also known to be widely employed in Azerbayjan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Georgia.
Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.