Kanun - Zither

Kanun (Zither)
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'. The term ‘kanon’ means law, administration, rule, regulation etc. It is the name of both of a single-stringed test implement used to determine the relationship between string length and vibration, and also of a musical instrument of the lute type, in which the strings are partly on the resonator and partly on the stem.

Throughout its long history, the kanun has undergone a number of changes, although its main structural features are today the same in all countries. A narrow wooden box over which the strings are stretched and which performs the function of a resonator has one side at an acute angle and the other running diagonally. On the straight side is a section made of stretched leather. The feet of the long bridge over which the strings run press on the leather. Most of the strings are in threes, although some of the lower ones are in twos. Every string that comes out of the straight angled section and runs over the bridge is covered by an accord peg, passing through a special cleft running the length of the edge. The pegs stand in three rows, passing over the peg box parallel to the cleft. The top edges of the pegs resemble truncated pyramids, and are turned by a special metal tuning key. Gut strings have today been replaced by nylon. The Turkish kanun consists of 24, 25 or 26 sets of strings of two or three strings each (generally giving a total of 75). The strings are tuned flat. The strings can be lengthened or shortened ny raising or lowering the small latches placed under the strings. In this way, the instrument can produce gaps smaller than a semitone during play. The reason why the instrument has a trapezoid form is to be able to insert the strings correctly from short to long, and to produce different sounds from high to low.

Its sound range is from three and a half to eight. The performer sits on a chair and lays the kanun flat on his knees, playing it with small ivory plectra placed on the index fingers of both hands. Recently, some experts have played the instrument on a small table to produce a denser sound.

Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.
Ceng (primitive harp) is one of the instruments included under the category of "open harps". These are divided in turn into "bow" and "angled" harps. The ceng belongs to the second category. In open harps the strings are stretched between the peg box and the resonator. There is nothing in front of the longest (and deepest) string. In closed harps, there is a third part that joins the two sides of the resonator and the peg box which form an angle.
Kabak Kemane (three-stringed violin) is a widespread Turkish folk instrument, the features of which change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gıcak, gıccek or gıjek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots.
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'.
Kemence - small violin played like a cello: The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence".
The term "kopuz" has long been used to mean "instrument" in Central Asia, and is today used to represent instruments that may or may not resemble one another, and appears in different Turkish dialects as "komis", "kobuz", "kobız", "kubuz" etc. What is presently referred to as the kobuz has survived in very different form among Turkish communities in Central, Western and Northern Asia.
Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them.
Tambur (mandolin) is one, and perhaps the most important, of the stringed and plucked instruments of Ottoman music. One view is that the tambur was an ancient development of the "kopuz", while others suggest that its own history goes back to very early times. Yet another theory is that the tambur is the first evolution and change of the baðlama family of instruments.
Tar is a Turkish folk instrument played with a plectrum, and is most popular in the Kars region of Turkey. It 's also known to be widely employed in Azerbayjan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Georgia.
Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.