Baglama family (with three double strings and two necks)


Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.

The smallest of the baglama family, and that with the highest pitch, is the cura. Slightly larger and an octave lower is the tambura. The lowest pitch in the baglama family comes from the divan sazi, which is an octave lower than the tambura.

The baglama consists of three sections; Table, chest and stem. The table section is generally made of mulberry wood, the chest from spruce, and the stem from beech, white beech or fir.

On that part of the stem furthest from the table is a part called the peg, to which the strings are attached. These pegs are used for tuning the instrument. There are frets on the stem tied with fishing line.

The baglama is played with a plectrum made of cherry bark or plastic, and in some regions with the fingers. That mode is playing is called ‘þelpe.’

These string groups can be tuned in different ways. One method consists of tuning the bottom group to La, the middle group to Re, and the top group to Mi. There are a number of other alternatives (Kara, misket, müstezat, abdal, rast etc.).

Baglama is the most common stringed instrument in Turkey. It is known as baglama, meydan sazi, divan sazi (court saz), bozuk, tambura, cura, uctelli (three-string), onikitelli (twelve-string), carta, irizva, cogur etc. depending on its size and region.
Ceng (primitive harp) is one of the instruments included under the category of "open harps". These are divided in turn into "bow" and "angled" harps. The ceng belongs to the second category. In open harps the strings are stretched between the peg box and the resonator. There is nothing in front of the longest (and deepest) string. In closed harps, there is a third part that joins the two sides of the resonator and the peg box which form an angle.
Kabak Kemane (three-stringed violin) is a widespread Turkish folk instrument, the features of which change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gıcak, gıccek or gıjek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots.
The origins of Kanun (zither) go back to before the time of Christ, and to the civilisations of Anatolia, Mesopotamia and Egypt. In later times, the kanun from these regions spread increasingly to other parts of the world. Similar instruments can particularly be seen in China, India and Pakistan. Almost all musicologists agree that the Arabic word ‘kanun’ comes from the Greek word ‘kanon'.
Kemence - small violin played like a cello: The name kemence is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the 20th century, the first of these was known as the "armudi" (pear) or "fasil" kemence, although these have now given way to the "classical kemence".
The term "kopuz" has long been used to mean "instrument" in Central Asia, and is today used to represent instruments that may or may not resemble one another, and appears in different Turkish dialects as "komis", "kobuz", "kobız", "kubuz" etc. What is presently referred to as the kobuz has survived in very different form among Turkish communities in Central, Western and Northern Asia.
Santur (dulcimer) is one of what musicologists term a "striking cythara". That is a Latin word, used to refer to stringed instruments with a large number of strings, each of which produces a particular note on a scale, set out parallel to the resonator. The cythara sound box is generally a box parallel to the chest and back. Such instruments are classified according to the shape of that box and also to the mode of playing them.
Tambur (mandolin) is one, and perhaps the most important, of the stringed and plucked instruments of Ottoman music. One view is that the tambur was an ancient development of the "kopuz", while others suggest that its own history goes back to very early times. Yet another theory is that the tambur is the first evolution and change of the baðlama family of instruments.
Tar is a Turkish folk instrument played with a plectrum, and is most popular in the Kars region of Turkey. It 's also known to be widely employed in Azerbayjan, Iran, Uzbekistan and Georgia.
Ud (lute) is a large-bodied, short-stemmed stringed instrument played not only in Turkey but also in the entire Arab world, including Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, where it is known by the same name, as well as Iran and Azerbayjan. In Iran it is known as the "barbat"’ It is very similar to the European lute.